OCHRATOXIN A-PRODUCING FUNGI IN GRAPES AND THEIR CONTROL BY BIOLOGICAL AGENTS - A REVIEW
The dependence on antagonistic microbes, particularly yeasts to prevent the possible occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) and its degradation is a promising and friendly solution to attain safe food and consumer confidence. The article aims at reviewing the current literature on OTA removal by combination of yeasts and other exogenous agents, as well as the mechanisms of action and the factors affecting OTA degradation process. It is important to acknowledge that attempts to avoid/reduce the use of harmful chemicals without compromising the loss of quantity and quality or palatability of decontaminated food are commendable. Besides, development of reliable and rapid research outcomes may be considered a paramount stride toward commercialization of technologies. Indeed, current knowledge on yeasts demonstrates their ability to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) through viable cells, cell walls and cell wall extracts as major mechanisms of action. The OTA removal may differ from yeast strain to yeast strain. Additional factors such as pH, moisture, temperature and water activity, influence OTA production and OTA detoxification by microbial control agents. Lastly, molecular studies to affirm the interactions between enhanced antagonistic yeasts, OTA-producing fungi and OTA degradation/detoxification will be important due to the pursuance of providing safe food and consumer confidence
Keywords: ochratoxin A (OTA), biocontrol agent, combination, degradation, mycotoxin
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