ESTIMATION AND SOURCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN DUST AT FUEL FILLING STATIONS IN THE TAMALE METROPOLIS, GHANA
The aim of the study was to identify and quantify the concentrations and potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in dust particles at fuel filling stations in the Tamale Metropolis. Sixteen USEPA recognised PAHs were identified after samples were analysed and their potential sources identified using PAH isomeric ratios. Sample extraction was conducted using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE) and PAH levels in samples were further analysed using the GC-MS system. The total PAHs concentrations in the High-Vehicular Traffic Areas fuel filling stations ranged from 38.70 µg/kg to 1,423,280 µg/kg with an average concentration of 158,080 ± 102,650 µg/kg, while that of the Low-Vehicular Traffic Areas ranged from 305 µg/kg to 3,176,400 µg/kg with an average concentration of 370,220 ± 218,140 µg/kg. Amongst the 16 PAHs identified, Benzo(a)Anthracene had the highest concentration for both Traffic Areas. The average concentration of Benzo(a)Pyrene was 39,310 µg/kg and this was 200 times higher than that recorded from the US urban background soils. The PAH isomeric ratios indicated a strong influence from petroleum and combustion sources on PAH concentration in the fuel filling stations. It is therefore necessary that appropriate measures are taken with regards to pollution control and risk management at fuel filling stations.
Keywords: Benzo(a)Anthracene, Benzo(a)Pyrene, Pyrene, Source Identification, Fuel Filling Stations
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