PRESENCE OF HEAVY METALS (LEAD AND CADMIUM) IN MEAT SAMPLED FROM THE TAMALE ABATTOIR AND RISK ASSESSMENT
The study investigated the presence and concentration of possible heavy metals residues in meat processed at Tamale abattoir. A total of twenty-seven (27) animal parts (liver, kidney and muscles) from goats, sheep and cattle were sampled and analysed for heavy metals using the Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS). Means and standard deviations of Pb and Cd concentrations were computed from the data collected to test for the difference in heavy metal concentrations in the various meat samples. Liver samples from all three different animals were found to contain the highest concentration of Pb (3.17±2.39 mg/kg) and Cd (3.47±3.19 mg/kg). The sampled muscles of all animals used had an average Cd concentration above the permissible. Pb concentrations in cattle and sheep were found to be higher than the permissible limits indicated by the World Health Organisation and United States Environmental Protection Agency. The average daily dose (ADD) of Pb exposure to humans via ingestion were 7.64 × 10˗9 ˗ 2.19 × 10˗8 for children and 3.27 ˗ 9.35 × 10˗9 for adults. For Cd, the ADD were 1.96 ˗ 4.57 × 10˗6 for children and 1.13 ˗ 2.63 × 10˗7 for adults. Human health risk assessment proved no eminent risk of carcinogenicity to consumers, but it is estimated that the higher levels of Pb and Cd in the meat samples may pose a potential health risk over a period of continual exposure.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Kidney, Liver, Muscle, Abattoir
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